Eurocodes: Introduction to the Eurocodes

There are ten structural Eurocodes, covering design principles, loading on structures, design with different materials, geotechnical design and design for earthquake resistance. The ten Eurocodes are shown below:

The way they fit together is shown by the below diagram:


The ten Eurocodes are further divided into parts covering individual types of structures, such as buildings, bridges, silos, towers and masts. In total, there are 58 parts to the ten Eurocodes.

The Highways Agency's work is associated with the 24 Eurocode parts that are most relevant to bridge design and the new European Execution Standards for steel and concrete. A brief summary of these is as follows:

Eurocode - Basis of Design
BS EN1990 Basis of Design  Much of this standard contains general principles for safety reliability and durability of structures.  Annex A2 is of particular importance to bridge engineers, as this contains all the material-independent partial factors and the combination rules for bridges.
Eurocode 1 - Actions on Structures
BS EN1991-1-1 General actions. Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings For bridge engineers this part contains information of the densities of different materials and some specific information for bridges such as specific provisions for fill above buried structures and surfacing.
BS EN1991-1-3 General actions. Snow Loads This part mostly contains rules for snow load application to roofs and therefore bridge engineers will most likely use it only for covered bridges, such as footbridges.
BS EN1991-1-4 General actions. Wind actions This part includes a section for the calculation of wind actions on bridges, similar to the provisions in BS5400-2 and BD37.  The wind actions part also contains informative annexes on Vortex shedding and aeroelastic instabilities, and dynamic characteristics of structures.
BS EN1991-1-5 General actions. Thermal actions The thermal actions part contains provisions for calculating the effects of expansion/contract and temperature difference on bridges.
BS EN1991-1-6 General actions. Actions during execution 'Actions during execution' refers to the actions that a structure would be subject to during its construction, refurbishment or full/partial demolition.  This part covers construction loads and situations that should be considered during execution.
BS EN1991-1-7 General actions. Accidental actions The accidental actions part includes provisions for vehicle collision on piers and superstructures along with issues such as shipping impact.
BS EN1991-2 Traffic loads on bridges The standard Eurocodes traffic loading models are contained in this part.  Abnormal vehicles are likely to be defined in the UK National Annex.  This part also contains the rules for assembling load groups to be applied to the structure.
Eurocode 2 - Design of Concrete Structures
BS EN1992-1-1 General. Common rules and rules for buildings In general, part 1-1 of each material-specific Eurocode part contains the common rules for buildings, bridges and other structures.  Hence, most of the rules that bridge engineers will use for determining sectional resistance are contained in this part, but will be supplemented by specific bridges rules in part 2.
BS EN1992-2 Concrete bridges - Design and detailing rules The concrete bridges part must be read in conjunction with the general requirements part and contains additions and modifications specific to bridges.  An example of this is the durability requirements for bridges.
BS EN1992-3 Liquid retaining and containment structures This part might not be obviously applicable to bridges, but the liquid retaining and containment structures part contains provisions for early thermal cracking that will probably be applicable for bridges.  Further information on the application of this is likely to be published in due course.
Eurocode 3 - Design of Steel Structures
BS EN1993-1-1 General. Common rules and rules for buildings This part contains rules for section classification, sectional resistance, axial and flexural buckling, amongst others.
BS EN1993-1-5 Plated structural elements When plate buckling has a significant effect the supplementary rules in part 1-5 will be used.  This part includes rules for the design of stiffened plates, stiffeners, shear buckling etc.
BS EN1993-1-8 Design of joints This part contains provisions for determining the resistance of bolted, welded and riveted connections.
BS EN1993-1-9 Fatigue The fatigue part of Eurocode 3 replaces BS5400-10 for determining the fatigue resistance of structural details.
BS EN1993-1-10 Material toughness and through thickness properties This part contains design requirements for the selection of steel for fracture toughness and for through thickness properties of welded elements where there is a significant risk of lamellar tearing during fabrication.
BS EN1993-1-11 Design of structures with tension components Part 1-11 contains design rules for tension components, including tensioned bars and cables that by the nature of their connection to the structure are adjustable.
BS EN1993-2 Steel bridges The steel bridges part supplements and modifies the provisions in the general rules.  Partial factors for use with steel bridges are contained in this part, as well as bridges-specific rules.
BS EN1993-5 Piling This part contains specific rules relating to the design of steel piles.
Eurocode 4 - Design of composite steel and concrete structures
BS EN1994-2 General rules and rules for bridges Unlike Eurocodes 2,3 and 5, the bridges part of Eurocode 4 is a stand-alone document and bridge designers will not need to cross reference to BS EN1994-1-1.
Eurocode 5 - Design of timber structures
BS EN1995-1-1 General. Common rules and rules for buildings. The general rules for timber structures are contained in this part.
BS EN1995-2 Bridges Specific rules for timber bridges, amending and modifying the rules in part 1-1, are contained in this part.
Eurocode 7 - Geotechnical design
BS EN1997-1 General rules Part 1 of the geotechnical design Eurocodes contains information on the specific geotechnical limit states, design approaches and principles that should be followed when designing geotechnical structures.
Eurocode 8 - Design of structures for earthquake resistance
BS EN1998-2 Bridges This part contains specific rules relating to the design of bridges for earthquake resistance.
Execution Standards
EN1090 Steel / Aluminium This new European Execution Standard will provide specifications for the execution (construction) of steel and aluminium structures.
EN13670 Concrete This new European Execution Standard will provide specifications for the execution (construction) of concrete structures.